How To Use Bless Hex Editor In Linux



David ===== The following code was posted by Chung Leong. shed - Hex editor for unix/linux using ncurses and pico interface Synalyze It - Reverse Engineering and Binary File Analysis T. It supports files up to 2^64 bytes. Bless is one of the most popular Hex editor available for Linux. However in comments WB3000 gives an advice to use hex editor to modify some files inside iso image. Main Features ----- * Efficient editing of large data files. Text Editor for Windows—Free for Personal Use. However, you can very easily install it from the Ubuntu Applications menu. * Customizable data views. A full featured hexadecimal editor : Ubuntu and other Linux. How To Hex Edit This is designed as an example of how to hex edit (modify) a file. After doing so, you can use one of Linux's built-in text editors to make changes to the file. Features: Displays each byte as ascii, hex, decimal, octal and binary, allows changes to be input in all of the above, with a simple Pico-style interface. 04 - The best Hexadecimal Editor for Linux: Before starting the installation of Bless Hex Editor (Hexadecimal Editor), update the package and repository of Ubuntu 18. We can get this method with use command line in Linux, but I want to get Column Editor in interactive GUI. Linux #bless, #config, #Hex Editor, Note: You won't be able to modify the preferences from the bless editor, you will have to edit the config file by yourself. % xxd -s 0x30 file. Hxd is a Windows hex editor that can handle files of any size, it also can be used as a RAW disk editor and RAM editor. Bless is a high quality, full featured hex editor. Linux Tips by Burleson Consulting. It is actively being developed, and is available on Windows, Linux, and Mac for free download here. Bless Hex Editor is a is a binary (hex) editor and currently provides the following features: Efficient editing of large data files and block devices. 04, and keep it up-to-date by receiving the software updates via Software Updater utility. I use Bless on linux. This uses the hex editor internally. It comes packed with a handy configuration set for all user levels. You can use the same regular expressions when using the Notepad++ “Find and Replace” function as well. It will highlight a value. Bless currently provides the following features: Efficient editing of large data files and block devices. Alternatively, or when you prefer scripting by Hex-Editor, you can use the Hex command listed above and insert it in your script. Assembly wise you will be lucky to get more than basic X86, mac style powerPC and maybe 8080/Z80 unless you go in for a ROM hacking based hex editor in which case you might get SNES or ARM7TDMI and ARM9. Double click the added file and adjust block size. How to use the Bless Ubuntu Hex Editor The most important thing we need to use a Hex Editor is a file to edit. I'm trying to find a hex editor, that is to say an editor that will open, and save to,. Using a Hex Editor on Linux - Make Tech Easier. A file picker should open. Lots of people trying to find one on StackExchange and being told to convert the file first of all to binary, then edit. gedit - Default text editor of Gnome desktop environment. * Multilevel undo - redo operations. How to import via Text2pcap the following Hex DATA. javahexeditor is a hex editor written in Java. Allerdings sollte er auch auf anderen System laufen, die Unterstützung für Mono und GTK bieten. However it should be able to run without problems on every platform that mono and Gtk# run on. The option to move the tabs in hex windows (like structure viewer, bookmarks, file stats, ) to the right side of the hex window turned out pretty cool too. Simply download the program and start using it today. It is written in mono/Gtk# and its primary platform is GNU/Linux. While not common, certain circumstances may require a hex dump of a file. A full featured hexadecimal editor : Ubuntu and other Linux. The free text editor Notepad ++, which is so useful every Windows computer should have it, will perfectly compare several files. Chocolatey is software management automation for Windows that wraps installers, executables, zips, and scripts into compiled packages. In this viewer, you can view, read, and also edit Hex codes. The Offset is on the left and is not part of the file but rather derived from the Hex editing/dumping application. However, to make your life a little bit easier, you can use some more **comfortable source-code editors** with advanced editing features. Paste the Wii U Common Key. However it should be able to run without problems on every platform that mono and Gtk# run. In addition to displaying the basic information provided by HxD Hex Editor and similar tools, it provides a Data At Offset, Structures. u/AnyReview. Okteta is a simple editor for the raw data of files. To do this, open your file in Vim and run :%!xxd. Because the file is read a piece at a time, it can be a device. Print 3 lines (hex 0x30 bytes) from the end of file. Check for suspicious magic bytes, correct file length, and use dd if=inputfile. Find and Replace with nano Home. Catch22 Hex Edit is a hex editor for Microsoft Windows. How To Hex Edit This is designed as an example of how to hex edit (modify) a file. Also your "ArchLinux" doesn't have any proper hex editor it there is no wxHexEditor. But Windows and Linux users don’t even get the option, so hopefully this has cleared up any confusion as to why your text editor is only capable of corrupting your files and not making beautiful glitch art. Project 7: Rebuilding an Image Header (10 Points) What You Need for This Project. How To: Binary Patching. - Compare files. Main Features Bless currently provides the following features: * Efficient editing of large data files and block devices. If you edit a file with a hex editor, you are said to hex edit the file, and the process of using a hex editor is called hex editing. With a maximum file size limit of 4Gb, Hex Edit can cut, copy, paste, insert, and delete any amount of data with no decrease in performance with larger files. Essentially, hexadecimal makes it much easier to read and edit binary data. Using the Hex Editor The Hex Editor Window (shown above) is the main method of viewing and editing binary files in 010 Editor (to edit text files see Using the Text Editor ). Running in the MS Windows environment, its use is governed by GPL License. Open /usr/bin/vlc using a hex editor. Bless currently provides the following features: Efficient editing of large data files and block devices. We can view the hex of a file by typing the following command in a Linux terminal (kali Linux used in this article). 1, and as such, scripts that use Lua 5. exe file and then open the. There is a problem when we want to watch video file using VLC. ova) with Bless Hex Editor, an hexadecimal editor. If you’re on a ChromeBook use the MicroPython application found on the Google Play store. Windows-based Tools. Hex Editors are your best friend now. it is a free hex editor for Windows, MacOS, Linux and all other modern operating systems, which uses HTML5 and JavaScript (JS) technology to enable hexediting online, directly in your browser. If you need to edit executable files, HT Editor is your friend! Download it from their website, build it, and run. Copy data as hex, text or source code. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Note: many people told us that another hex editor, called Bless, is better; this tool may not be installed in the VM version that you are using, but you can install it yourself using the following command:. We have an advanced level of copy and paste feature in the Bless Hex Editor (hexadecimal editor). apk) Sign the new apk. Let's assume you work with binary data and you are unable to understand the format of a file, you can make use of Hexdump command to get file contents in much better readable format. How to use the Bless Ubuntu Hex Editor The most important thing we need to use a Hex Editor is a file to edit. With a maximum file size limit of 4Gb, Hex Edit can cut, copy, paste, insert, and delete any amount of data with no decrease in performance with larger files. Bless! Bless is a high quality, full featured hex editor. Open /usr/bin/vlc using a hex editor. When using Firefox and Internet Explorer, you can use a hex editor, such as WinHex, to search the active memory in these programs and frequently find user ID and password combinations. wxMEdit is a cross-platform Text/Hex Editor written in C++ & wxWidgets. Bless currently provides the following features: Efficient editing of large data files and block devices. A cursor to show which hex values correspond to which text on the right is vital, otherwise trying to figure out exactly where I'm editing is a pain. To access the menu items at the top, I had to use Esc key (Esc + F to access File menu, for example). Hex Editor - an application for editing the binary data, the data is represented in the "raw" - as a sequence of bytes. This manual page was written for the Debian GNU/Linux distribution because the original program does not have a manual page. Main features are: * Efficient editing of large data files. how to install bless hex editor (hexadecimal editor) in ubuntu 16. "Responsive" is the primary reason people pick 0xED over the competition. Description ----- Bless is a binary (hex) editor, a program that enables you to edit files as a sequence of bytes. Bless is written in mono/Gtk# and its primary platform is GNU/Linux. Its special feature is the diff mode: With it, the user has a visual tool for file comparison. Plugin provides table with hex and character view of the file. However, you can very easily install it from the Ubuntu Applications menu. Bless currently provides the following features: Efficient editing of large data files and block devices. The Brute Force of Reverse Engineering with IDA and Hopper (And a Hex Editor). Once you have a binary version of the code, converting this to a hex file is trivial using the documentation in the link I posted earlier. ova) with Bless Hex Editor, an hexadecimal editor. Moreover, it can be used to perform binary file patching. Equally important as a hex editor is a brain. com - Teach Yourself Debian GNU/Linux. Detailed documentation on how to use and develop "mergeable" mods are anexed. Sublime Text uses a custom UI toolkit, optimized for speed and beauty, while taking advantage of native functionality on each platform. Now we are ready to install Bless Hex editor (hexadecimal editor). Linux Hex Editors only bvi A typical three-pane hex editor, with a vi-like interface. documentation > linux > usage > text-editors Text editors. 0 - a hex editor with read/write support for block devices. On the Mac there are only PeekIt and iBored offering more than simple binary file editing, the others (Hex Editor, HexEdit, hexedit, 0xED, Bless, beye, Hex Fiend, MadEdit, wxHexEditor) all don't help you much to understand what's encoded in a binary file. Just download it, unzip it, run XVI32. Note: some people told us that another hex editor, called Bless, is better; this tool may not be installed in the VM version that you are using, but you can install it yourself. View and Edit files in ASCII or HEX mode. Linux provides a lot of command line tools for easy and practical use. One of the more advanced hex editors in this article is Bless, is similar to Ghex, it has graphical interface that allows you to edit large data files with multilevel undo/redo mechanism. Debates on which one is the best have been going on for years. Able to compare two files. Bless is a binary (hex) editor, a program that enables you to edit files as a sequence of bytes written for the GNOME Desktop. The easy to use interface offers features such as searching and replacing, exporting, checksums/digests, insertion of byte patterns, a file shredder, concatenation or. (b) Linux users expect to get all their software for free. Hi I need to analyse the data which was traced using wireshrak. DAVE TIP of the day: How to use SEGGER J-Link to download. You can edit the files and do much more than a simple inline replace. a hex editor, I used Hex Workshop (do not ask me how to pirate this software, buy it if you like it) a way to connect your hard drive to your computer (which you should already have) a bit of common sense For this tutorial I used a 250gb WD2500BEVS I salvaged from a dead laptop (Profit!). The Brute Force of Reverse Engineering with IDA and Hopper (And a Hex Editor). The demonstration was performed on a Windows 7 machine. Use an hex editor as GHex or Bless to replace these ads urls with invalid urls (I suggest to use the same length). Such programs are sometimes known as "notepad" software, following the naming of Microsoft Notepad. bbe - sed-like editor for binary files beav - binary editor and viewer bless - A full featured hexadecimal editor bvi - binary file editor dhex - ncurses based hex editor with diff mode hexer - interactive binary editor with a Vi-like interface jeex - visual editor to view and edit files in hexadecimal le - Text editor with block and binary operations lfhex - large file hex editor ncurses. Advanced copy/paste capabilities. The block device you want to access is likely /dev/hda or /dev/sda. This is also available from the menu if you're using gVim, under 'Tools Convert to HEX' and 'Tools Convert back'. In order to install. Fast data rendering on screen. A hex editor, also called a binary file editor or byte editor, is a type of program that allows a user to view and edit the raw and exact contents of files, that is, at the byte level, in contrast to the higher level interpretations of the same contents that are provided by other, higher level application programs. wxHexEditor is another Free Hex Editor, built because there is no good hex editor for Linux system, specially for big files. Frhed is an binary file editor for Windows. Linux Hex Editor. Bless Hex Editor. It is written in mono/Gtk# and its primary platform is GNU/Linux. File Layout Documentation - Peter Schepers' documentation on the layouts of many c64 filetypes. In contrast, high-level applications (like word processing software) are representing the logical, not the physical contents of files. Cross platform: Windows, Linux and Mac. Recovering artifacts. Use a hex editor to open the shared object. png of=anothefile. I have previously blogged about that excellent tool Notepad++. A true cross-platform, multi-language editor, SlickEdit gives programmers the ability to code in over 60 languages on 9 platforms. It's possible to dump a file, byte by byte, in PowerShell, using the Get-Content cmdlet's -Encoding Byte parameter. Linux / Ubuntu. Print everything but the first three lines (hex 0x30 bytes) of file. But will be migrating to code a Linux and apache server when complete. Vim and Emacs can also be used as hex editors in Linux. With a maximum file size limit of 4Gb, Hex Edit can cut, copy, paste, insert, and delete any amount of data with no decrease in performance with larger files. how to install bless hex editor (hexadecimal editor) in ubuntu 16. You can think of the offset as the line number of a hex dump. hex file only. Chocolatey is software management automation for Windows that wraps installers, executables, zips, and scripts into compiled packages. There are far ranges of Linux hex editor available in the market; that to a greater extent make a user squarely beneficial, and allow them to edit binary program. How to Save Data from Storage Media to Binary Files. The name “hex” comes from “hexadecimal,” a standard numerical format for representing binary data. In this tutorial, I introduce a HEX editor called wxHexEditor which is available for Linux, Windows and MacOS X. - Directly enter hex values or text in main window (overwrite or insert). This article will cover the structure of a generic Master Boot Record (MBR) structure and demonstrate how information about storage disks can be extracted and analysed manually using a hex editor such as Hex Workshop. This is also available from the menu if you're using gVim, under 'Tools Convert to HEX' and 'Tools Convert back'. For example, a hex byte 50 may represent the capital letter P, the processor command "push eax", the decimal number 80, a color component with 31% brightness, or a zillion of other things. Create favicon. ghex or Bless) to directly modify binary files. Note 2: In this task, you are supposed to write your own program to invoke the crypto library. copied the files to be. % xxd -s 0x30 file. Download the zipped image from here (400MB) 2. Could recommend for a console hex editor under Cygwin? Stack Exchange Network Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow , the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Also your "ArchLinux" doesn't have any proper hex editor it there is no wxHexEditor. Hexedit, is tool to edit the hex file. For PeekIt you can write a plugin for file analysis if you're a developer. You can find it listed in your AppCenter or Software Center. Full Source code for D64 Editor 0. To solve this issue, you may follow this steps: a. How to install Kali on a USB stick with pure EFI boot on a Mac (and let’s throw in virtualization via USB on Virtualbox, too). How can I do a "find and replace" command but do it with hex codes? These symbols cant be simply placed into my code file because VS does not know how to interpret it. com - Teach Yourself Debian GNU/Linux. The one I use is called AXE (advdanced hex editor). Tutorials, tools, and interesting links for making the types of art Glitchet loves. Many people are afraid of learning it, but seriously, for no important reasons. QB64 version of an old QB45 Stock Watcher porfolio manager. Write how to improve this page. Find word ‘getuid‘ (without single quote). ico and iOS / Android App Icons. Hex Fiend does not keep your files in memory. Welcome to LinuxQuestions. How to edit/change already compiled games? Hello. I would still claim that Hex is at least 10 times faster than conventional FFT docking algorithms. Intel HEX to BINARY File Converter Utility. Features: Values and characters shown either in two columns (the traditional display in hex editors) or in rows with the value on top of the character; Editing and navigating similar to a text editor; Customizable data views, with loadable and storable profiles; Tools dockable on all sides or floating. Access the App Store for Linux from your desktop. View data as text tool. Free Hex Editor (frehed) Free Hex Editor is provided by HHD software. How To Hex Edit This is designed as an example of how to hex edit (modify) a file. Free Hex Editor Neo is the fastest large files optimized binary file editor for Windows platform developed by HHD Software Ltd. A VBA Project password can be removed with a hex editor (I used the XVI32 Freeware editor from here). You can use BINARY files with most EPROM programmers and you can easily use them for CRC or checksum calculations. Hex editors are typically less understood than text editors, so we wrote an article explaning what hex editors are and why you might want to use one. 7_2 editors =3 0. But when i have installed Kali Linux, i did not see that tool again. Bless is a high quality, full featured hex editor. In addition to being a top-class text editor, UltraEdit is also an extremely popular hex editor. Ideally start a new game, but it should work with regularly saved game as well. Click on an address in the decompiled code to go to its IL code in the hex editor; Reverse of above, press F12 in an IL body in the hex editor to go to the decompiled code or other high level representation. There are many different programs that specifically implement this function, but it is generally undesirable to use many different programs that are each tailored to process only one task. A Windows machine, real or virtual I did it on the Mac in a VMware Fusion virtual machine running 32-bit Windows XP Pro. Some hex editors offer a template system that can present the sequence of bytes of a binary file in a structured way, covering part or all of the desired file format. Not just small file but a large file can also be viewed instantly in it because it can handle data chunks of 64k size at a time. Some are easy-to-use but have limited functionality; others require training to use and take a long time to master, but offer incredible functionality. Paste data as hex or binary. This entire illustration is based on the ProdSQLShackDemo database. Use EditPad Lite to easily edit any kind of plain text file. In this viewer, you can view, read, and also edit Hex codes. Hex Editor for Windows. Small memory footprint. A true cross-platform, multi-language editor, SlickEdit gives programmers the ability to code in over 60 languages on 9 platforms. Very unintuitive interface, and useless for me as a hex editor, as I need to be able to see where my cursor is, and move it more easily. Note: many people told us that another hex editor, called Bless, is better; this tool may not be installed in the VM version that you are using, but you can install it yourself using the following command:. But Windows and Linux users don’t even get the option, so hopefully this has cleared up any confusion as to why your text editor is only capable of corrupting your files and not making beautiful glitch art. No matter which application you used to create a file – hex editors show every bit and byte of it. There are command-line hex editors (like XXD or DHEX), but they are not as convenient to use as a GUI hex editor. If you want to use the Binary Editor on a resource already being edited in another editor window, close the other editor window first. d) 1), 2) or 3) to be sure you're at ' Sector 0 '. For people, who use pico / nano as a default text editor in Linux shed will probably be the editor of choice as it follows the command shortcuts of picoOn Deb based distros to install it run: debian:~# apt-get install -yes shed … Shed has no BSD port as of time of writting. Advanced copy/paste capabilities. Basically, right-click on the DAT file, choose Open With and try as many programs as you can find. CHK are repaired by Chkdsk or Scandisk in Windows. To save the file and exit at the same time, you can use the ESC and :x key and hit [Enter]. There're tons and tons of hex editor programs out there, many of them are free, and they all offer more or less the same features. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. As a matter of fact, the philosophy of Linux is everything is a file. Hxd is a Windows hex editor that can handle files of any size, it also can be used as a RAW disk editor and RAM editor. 3 years ago. The design and usability of HexEd. hex The bytes will be stored in the binary file with a padding from 0000 to the lowest address minus 1 (00FF in this case). The name “hex” comes from “hexadecimal,” a standard numerical format for representing binary data. However, to make your life a little bit easier, you can use some more **comfortable source-code editors** with advanced editing features. Muine Music Player Muine is a simple music player. hexdump -C -n 4 -C : flag specifies Canonical hex+ASCII display-n : specifies number of bytes; Here we see the same pcap file from before. Windows-based Tools. net into foobarfoo. all said to use the bless hex editor which good to analyse it seems, but I am finding hard to download into my windows OS. * Fast data rendering on screen. Because this program will read file in memory so program will freeze when try to load this file. If y bless hex editor free download - SourceForge. The author prefers to monitor the effect of xxd with strace(1) or truss(1), whenever -s is used. lst I would really like very much to look into this file and see normal human readable text for learning and editing. Select Open With then choose the Binary Editor. If you need to edit executable files, HT Editor is your friend! Download it from their website, build it, and run. ifhex is a hex editor that requires less than 2MB of memory to load a 2GB file. * Multilevel undo - redo operations. cloning node multiple times. You can quickly find some content and change it. Step 3: Download a Hex Editor Now that you know how to count/read in binary and hexadecimal and understand what a hex editor does, it's time to go get one. NTFS uses the Master File Table (MFT) as a database to keep track of files. How to install bless hex editor in Kali Linux? Close. QB64 FLI Vewer. This is a package from the community repository. It is written in C# and uses the Gtk# bindings for the GTK+ toolkit. Edit a favicon to fit your needs, or search our gallery. Also your "ArchLinux" doesn't have any proper hex editor it there is no wxHexEditor. Anyway I tried out a whole bunch of hex editors as part of my GBA and DS docs. wav file like c:\WINDOWS\Media\chimes. PSPad is a freeware programmer's editor for Microsoft Windows operating systems, useful for people who:. hex I have compared the binary produced by objcopy and cyelftool. This uses the hex editor internally. EHEP Update Site URL: EHEP - Eclipse Hex Editor Plugin | Eclipse Plugins, Bundles and Products - Eclipse Marketplace. Using the hex editor change this to 04 and then save the file. VLC does not allow us to use root. Additionally, the application also allows you to perform raw disk editing as well as modifying the contents of your computer's RAM. Can you derive any useful infor-mation about the original picture from the encrypted picture? Please explain your observations. To create a binary file, enter the Access code and press button "Create binary file". It lets users view and edit a binary file in both hex and ascii with a multiple level undo/redo mechanism. 0 By: dtgm; Bless is a high quality, full featured hex editor. Note 2: In this task, you are supposed to write your own program to invoke the crypto library. So don't bother using Cygnus forever if you plan on doing some advanced hacking. 1-incompatible code may break. HEX file is an Intel HEX Format Data. Great things happen when developers work together—from teaching and sharing knowledge to building better software. But will be migrating to code a Linux and apache server when complete. d) 1), 2) or 3) to be sure you're at ' Sector 0 '. Pick out a photograph you've taken and export it to a location on your computer. Bookmark, SyntaxHighlightings, Encodings, WordWrap, WordCount and Updates checking. 6 posts published by TechGeeks during February 2017. Since it is a very big file, I suggest you use wxHexEditor: wxHexEditor /dev/sda From the website: wxHexEditor is not an ordinary hex editor, but could work as low level disk editor too. Customizable data views. 16) Hi, Following the procedure Cited 6 February 2013 That exposed Brada about Installing adobe-flash-player using the hex editor in W2k, I'd like someone to tell me if it's the same procedure to make Adobe. By using [email protected] Disk Editor of [email protected] Boot Disk, you can view and edit disk's sectors directly in raw format. Bless currently provides the following features: Efficient editing of large data files and block devices. However it should be able to run without problems on every platform that mono and Gtk# run. gedit - Default text editor of Gnome desktop environment. Main features are: * Efficient editing of large data files. It is written in C# and uses the Gtk# bindings for the GTK+ toolkit. Command to jump to a specific address. offset size type name value # start end size type data; 1: 0: 4: 5. Unfortunately, it seems to have disappeared from the net. With Free Hex Editor Neo, edit and analyze your hexadecimal data and binary files. example_noads. To guess structures, relations and the meaning of the data, to develop theories and then verify them. Now copy the file back to the humax box. The download archive contains a project workspace for Microsoft Visual C++ 6. Searching You can search for a string in ASCII or in hexadecimal. It is written in mono/Gtk# and its primary platform is GNU/Linux. Bless is a high quality, full featured hex editor. Save a disk's MBR (Master Boot Record) or Volume Boot Sector, or copy many sectors (such as the first 100 or 2100). Using Hex or Line Hex view is as easy as picking "Hex" or "Line Hex" from the View menu. bin into HxD Editor. Quite often as part of ethical hacking, you should use a hex editor to see how an application is storing sensitive information, such as passwords, in memory. If you are familiar with vi, just start the editor and begin to edit!A bmore program is also included in the package. It seems everyone else thinks a hex editor is one that will open any file given it as a binary file and allow you to edit it. To cut a long story short: A hex editor is a program that lets you edit files at a low-level basis. With FlexHEX, it is no more complicated than simple hex editing. Both editors use a similar grammar to specify and operate on line ranges. com - Teach Yourself Debian GNU/Linux. Seeing the actual bytes can help in certain circumstances. In addition to being a top-class text editor, UltraEdit is also an extremely popular hex editor. The option to use Regular Expressions with Notepad++ makes the application a really powerful tool to use on Windows. The name “hex” comes from “hexadecimal,” a standard numerical format for representing binary data. decrypt ssl to pcap. Online Hex Editor. Step 3: Download a Hex Editor Now that you know how to count/read in binary and hexadecimal and understand what a hex editor does, it's time to go get one. A good file was found in the hex editor, copied to a new file, and played. A cursor to show which hex values correspond to which text on the right is vital, otherwise trying to figure out exactly where I'm editing is a pain. However it should be able to run without problems on every platform that mono and Gtk# run. Open HXD Editor and drag and drop ckey. Remains responsive with 1 million+ edits. Editable file size limited only by available system memory. These are called binary editors or hexadecimal editors, and the best of them in my experience (at least for the Linux world) is the Bless Hex Editor. Access the App Store for Linux from your desktop. The screenshot below shows the hex editor view of a single sector on a hard drive: Hex editor view of the start of a hard drive.